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Menorrhagia: Causes, symptoms, prevention and treatment

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PT Health Life – Menorrhagia is a phenomenon in which menstruation occurs within the menstrual cycle but lasts more than 7 days, with a lot of blood loss accompanied by menstrual cramps in the lower abdomen. If not treated promptly, menorrhagia leads to many dangerous complications, even causing infertility.

1. Causes of menorrhagia

A normal menstrual cycle will last between 28-32 days, the average menstrual period is 3-5 days. Menstrual blood is usually dark red, does not coagulate, and has a lot of debris from mucosal cells. vagina, uterus and bacteria present in the vagina. Menorrhagia is a phenomenon in which menstruation occurs within the menstrual cycle but lasts more than 7 days. Menstrual bleeding can be more or less depending on each person’s constitution. This condition can be accompanied by severe menstrual cramps in the lower abdomen, making women feel tired and uncomfortable. The blood is usually dark red, accompanied by dead cells in the vaginal mucosa and sloughed uterus.

Menorrhagia has the following causes:

  • Functional menorrhagia:

Functional menorrhagia is most common during puberty and premenopause in women. During reproductive age, it most often appears after giving birth, using abortion pills and using birth control pills. In particular, menorrhagia is concentrated in women at high risk of obesity, multiple births, weight gain, smoking, approaching menopause, diabetes, hypothyroidism, coagulation disorders, and chronic hepatitis. , heart disease, kidney disease, lupus redness…

  • Menorrhagia due to physical causes:

Is due to physical damage to the uterus or ovaries such as: uterine fibroids, endometritis, uterine polyps, polycystic ovaries, cervical cancer, endometrial cancer, related to fetus, systemic diseases (blood clotting disorders, goiter)… In addition, some birth control pills can also cause menorrhagia, especially emergency contraceptive pills.


2. Symptoms of menorrhagia

Menorrhagia often has the following symptoms:

  • Menstruation lasts more than 7 days.
  • Heavy bleeding during menstruation.
  • At night, menstruation is heavy and the bandage must be changed continuously.
  • Fatigue, shortness of breath, and symptoms of anemia if menorrhagia is accompanied by hypermenorrhea for a long time.
  • Menstrual blood clots into large clots and often causes pain in the lower abdomen.

If menorrhagia causes women to lose too much blood, it will directly affect their health, causing the body to have signs such as:

  • Anemia : Due to a decrease in red blood cells, a decrease in oxygen to the tissues leads to difficulty breathing, paleness, weakness and fatigue
  • Severe pain: Sometimes menorrhagia is also accompanied by menstrual cramps, making it impossible for women to do work.
  • Menstrual blood is black: Blood stagnates in the uterus and appendages, creating conditions for bacteria to invade and affect reproductive health.

3. How to treat menorrhagia

Treatment will depend on two main factors: the cause and the patient’s desire to have children.

  • Use medicine:

Usually, doctors will prescribe medication to improve menorrhagia. It could be birth control pills, pain relievers, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), Progesterone hormone supplements or iron supplements to avoid anemia. If medical treatment is not effective, the doctor will prescribe surgery.

  • Surgery:

Treatment procedures can be uterine dilation and curettage, endometrial ablation or hysterectomy (including uterus and cervix)… However, the limitation of these procedures is that they can cause complications. Infertility, so it only applies to women who are older or no longer need to have children.

4. Prevent menorrhagia

The cause of the disease cannot be prevented. However, women can consult a doctor and follow a gynecological examination schedule every 6 months or according to specific instructions to control the condition well, without affecting health and fertility. .

Some measures to help reduce menorrhagia include:

  • Lie down and rest if your menstrual bleeding is too heavy
  • Avoid stress and prolonged fatigue
  • Eat enough food, maintain a diet low in meat and fat, increase supplementation with zinc, iron, magnesium, vitamins B1, B6, Vitamin E, etc. At the same time, limit stimulating drinks or foods during exercise. Menstrual cycle can lead to menorrhagia such as alcohol, coffee, cold water, spicy spices…
  • Get moderate rest, exercise regularly, limit stress and prolonged fatigue to stabilize your body’s hormones.
  • Eat mugwort: mugwort is an Oriental medicine used in many treatments to regulate menstruation, reduce bad blood during menstruation, and reduce menstrual pain.

Summary: When there are symptoms of menorrhagia, patients need to be examined and treated. In case menorrhagia is a sign of pathology such as: gynecological diseases such as uterine fibroids, endometritis, uterine polyps or polycystic ovary syndrome, uterine cancer… timely treatment is needed to prevent Avoid negative health effects and possible infertility.

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