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What should be done to detect bone marrow failure?

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PT health Life – reduced hematopoiesis in the bone marrow, due to damage to stem cells and the hematopoietic microenvironment of the bone marrow.

The disease can occur in all ages, both men and women. According to world studies, the disease commonly occurs in two age groups: from 15 to under 30 years old and over 60 years old. The consequence is a reduction in 3 blood cell lines (red blood cells, white blood cells, platelets).

Bone marrow failure is a disease of hematopoietic stem cells, caused by reduced hematopoiesis in the bone marrow, due to damage to stem cells and the hematopoietic microenvironment of the bone marrow. Illustration

1. Symptoms of bone marrow failure

Bone marrow failure is caused by a decrease in blood cell production, which leads to the following clinical symptoms:

  • Anemia is the most common symptom, usually chronic anemia. Symptoms are: when changing positions, dizziness, vertigo, pale skin, palpitations, fatigue, especially when doing strenuous activities such as climbing stairs, feeling short of breath.
  • Bleed. Manifestations are diverse such as bleeding under the skin into spots, nodules, plaques, clusters; Mucosal bleeding such as nosebleeds, bleeding gums, oral mucosal bleeding, internal bleeding, gastrointestinal bleeding…
  • Infection: usually an opportunistic infection due to a severe decrease in the number of neutrophils, manifesting as fever, cough, pneumonia, gastrointestinal and urinary tract infections, and septicemia.
  • The liver, spleen, and lymph nodes are not enlarged.

2. Tests needed to diagnose bone marrow failure

There are 3 tests to diagnose bone marrow failure :

  • Complete analysis of peripheral blood cells. In patients with bone marrow failure , the number of red blood cells, hemoglobin, hematocrit, and reticulocyte index decrease. The number of platelets and white blood cells decreased. In the white blood cell formula, the proportion of neutrophils is low and the proportion of lymphocytes is increased.
  • Marrow test (bone marrow aspiration test). Patients with bone marrow failure have a reduced number of bone marrow cells and a decrease in the production of hematopoietic cells in the bone marrow (reduced production of red blood cells, platelets, and granulocytes). In the marrow, only mature lymphocytes are usually found.
  • Bone marrow biopsy test. This is the most important test to help diagnose bone marrow failure and the severity of the disease.
Bone marrow failure is a benign blood disease. However, depending on the severity of the disease, patients may experience different complications.

3. Complications, treatment and prevention of bone marrow failure

Bone marrow failure is a benign blood disease. However, depending on the severity of the disease, patients may experience different complications such as: Opportunistic infections due to low neutrophil granulocytes; Severe bleeding due to low platelets; complications of heart failure due to severe anemia; Severe infections, sepsis due to leukopenia; Cerebral – meningeal hemorrhage, gastrointestinal bleeding due to thrombocytopenia.

For patients with bone marrow failure, anemia is a common symptom because the bone marrow cannot produce blood cells. Therefore, it is often accompanied by iron overload. Iron overload in patients with this disease is due to the body not being able to use raw materials to synthesize red blood cells.

Depending on each patient’s condition, doctors recommend treatment regimens such as:

  • Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation: Is the most effective specific treatment method currently.
  • Immunosuppressive treatment
  • Supportive treatment. Blood transfusion, infection control, use of hematopoietic stimulants, iron chelation, treatment of drug side effects.

Patients with bone marrow failure, anemic patients with excess iron should not supplement iron-rich foods such as beef or red meat. Patients can choose fish, white meat, red, white or yellow vegetables.

  • Limit exposure to sources of risk factors such as viruses, toxic chemicals, pesticides, and herbicides.
  • Eat scientifically and exercise regularly
  • Regular health check-ups every 6 months – 1 year to detect abnormalities in the body early.
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