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Who is at risk of thyroid cancer?

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PT Health Life – Thyroid cancer is a condition in which thyroid cells increase in large numbers due to disordered division of DNA genetic material. Thyroid cancer has many causes and risk factors.

Most patients with thyroid disease are difficult to detect because the symptoms of the disease often progress silently. In many cases, the disease has progressed to cancerous stages or metastasized to many other organs but the patient still does not know it.

Thyroid cancer is a condition in which thyroid cells increase in large numbers due to disordered division of DNA genetic material. Illustration

1. Risk factors for thyroid cancer

1. Gender and age

For unclear reasons (possibly endocrine related), the incidence of thyroid cancer in women (like most thyroid diseases ) is about 3 times higher than in men.

Thyroid cancer can occur at any age, but the risk peaks earlier for women (often in their 40s or 50s when diagnosed) than for men (more often diagnosed in age 60 or 70).

2. Genetic diseases

Certain genetic conditions and family histories are associated with different types of thyroid cancer. However, most people who develop thyroid cancer do not have a genetic condition or a family history of the disease.

– Medullary thyroid cancer: About 2 out of 10 medullary thyroid carcinomas (MTC) are caused by abnormal genes. These cases are called medullary thyroid carcinoma (FMTC). FMTC may occur alone or it may be found with other tumors. The combination of FMTC and tumors of other endocrine glands is called Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 2 (MEN2).

Other thyroid cancer: People with certain genetic diseases are at risk of developing more common forms of thyroid cancer. Higher rates of thyroid cancer occur in people with uncommon genetic conditions such as:

+ Familial adenomatous Polyposis (FAP): People with this syndrome show signs of developing many colon polyps and have a very high risk of colon cancer. They are also at risk of certain other cancers, including papillary thyroid cancer. Gardner syndrome is a type of FAP in which patients also have some benign tumors. Both Gardner syndrome and FAP are caused by defects in the APC gene.

+ Cowden disease: People with this syndrome are at risk for certain benign thyroid and growth problems. They are also at risk of cancer of the thyroid, uterus, breast, as well as some other organs. Thyroid cancer tends to be of the papillary or follicular type. This syndrome is often caused by a defect in the PTEN gene.

+ Carney complex disease (type I): People with this syndrome may develop some benign tumors and experience hormone problems. They are also at risk for papillary and follicular thyroid cancer. This syndrome is caused by a defect in the PRKAR1A gene.

+ Familial nonmedullary thyroid carcinoma: This type of thyroid cancer occurs more frequently in some families and is often discovered at a very young age. Currently, scientists are suspecting that mutations in genes on chromosome 19 and chromosome 1 cause this type of cancer.

3. Family history

Having an immediate relative (parent, brother, sister or child) with thyroid cancer, even without a genetic syndrome in the family, will increase your risk of thyroid cancer. The genetic basis for these cancers is not completely clear. In addition, it may also be due to similar living habits and the same living environment.

4. Radiation

Radiation exposure is a proven risk factor for thyroid cancer. Sources of such radiation include certain medical treatments and radioactive fallout from power plant accidents or nuclear weapons. Exposure to radiation when you are an adult has a low risk of developing thyroid cancer.

5. Iodine in the diet

Thyroid cancer is common in areas of the world where people eat very little iodine. On the other hand, a diet high in iodine may increase the risk of papillary thyroid cancer.

Depending on the type of disease, the stages of thyroid cancer will have different symptoms. Illustration

2. Solutions to prevent thyroid cancer

Depending on the type of disease, the stages of thyroid cancer will have different symptoms. However, no matter what type of disease or pathology, early active treatment combined with prevention is very important. Specifically:

  • Limit or avoid exposure to toxic chemicals and radiation.
  • Self-examine your neck and perform regular health checks to monitor your health.
  • Build a healthy diet and lifestyle. Spend plenty of time resting, relaxing, and de-stressing. Limit your body’s exposure to prolonged stress. In addition, maintaining a weight appropriate to your BMI is also essential.
  • Supplement the body with foods that are beneficial for the thyroid such as almonds and cashews.
  • For those who have relatives who have suffered from thyroid-related diseases, it is necessary to perform health checks and disease screening every year to detect the disease early and treat it promptly.
  • You should not take hypothyroidism medication with foods rich in calcium such as milk, milk products or with calcium medication, this will reduce the effectiveness of the medication.
  • Coffee or drinks containing caffeine also reduce the effectiveness of thyroid medication because caffeine stimulates the digestive system, reducing the drug’s absorption. Thyroid patients should take the medicine on an empty stomach, preferably in the morning, and can have breakfast about 1 hour later.
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